perhaps is not the strongest force in shaping our societies
but certainly one of the basic elements of change. Spatial
participatory tools can be strategically brought in to reinforce
bottom-up development and collective decision making. Like
a universal language based on colors, shapes and dimensions,
P3DM is a powerful communication means which helps bridging
language, education and cultural barriers.
includes sensation and perception, thinking, imagery, reasoning
and problem solving, memory, learning and language. Location,
size, distance, direction, shape, pattern, movement and
inter-object relations are part of the spatial world as
we know and conceive it. Cognitive maps are internal representation
of the world and its spatial properties stored in memory.
Frequently referred to as mental maps, they allow us to
know ‘what is out there, what its attributes are, where
it is and how to get there’. Cognitive maps are distinctive
to individuals. They are not inclusive like a cartographic
map with a constant scale, but consist of discrete, hierarchically-organized
pieces determined by physical, perceptual or conceptual
develops in humans through three
progressive stages including landmark knowledge, route knowledge
and survey knowledge. The first one refers to the capacity
of memorizing places in relation to an event, the second
to developing the sense of ordered sequences of landmarks.
The last and more progressed stage is the one where the
knowledge embraces simultaneously more locations, their
interrelations and allows for detouring, shortcutting and
creative navigation. (Montello 1997).
different visualising methods (e.g.
sketch mapping, transect diagramming,
participatory aerial photo-interpretation, relief modelling,
mapping, etc.) used to spatially
reproduce people’s knowledge,
3-D Modelling (P3DM) is the
one which - by adding the vertical dimension and using simple
communication means (colours,
shapes and dimensions) - offers
ample opportunities for surfacing “tacit” knowledge and
for merging individual life-worlds.
One of the reasons that tacit knowledge
is being surfaced during P3DM is that the relief model helps
different elders reflect on their own knowledge and listen
to each other. It makes tacit knowledge become coherent
and identifiable for the holders of that knowledge. This
can be missed using other techniques. It is the link between
memory, land and maps which creates a particular focus.
adequate facilitation, its 3-dimensional nature enhances
discovery learning through sensorial
(visual and tactile) experiences, stimulates confrontational
feedback, which in turn promotes debate, and frequently
generates shared knowledge in visible and “tangible” formats.
In addition, by providing a "bird's eye view", a
relief model contributes to widen the participants’ evaluative
frame of reference on spatially
defined issues (e.g. dynamics of linked
ecosystems, hydraulics of watersheds, boundary issues, etc.)
thus stimulating active learning and analysis. In other
words it helps understanding ecological and social dynamics
which go beyond the cognitive boundaries of the individual.
people’s knowledge in cartographic format i.e. fitting a
“receiver-oriented” communication model
or in other words, packaging a message like visualized people’s
knowledge, to meet the frame of reference of the receiver
(scientists, engineers, government officials, politicians,
to generate information which could place informal (community)
and formal (scientists, government officials, consultants,
etc.) knowledge at comparable levels, thus facilitating
interaction, reciprocal learning and
negotiation (Alcorn, 2000, 2001; Poole, 1995, 1998;
Rambaldi & al., 2000)
PPGIS, PGIS and P3DM Virtual Library